Some features of this site are not compatible with your browser. Install Opera Mini to better experience this site.

  1. References

  2. Anthes, R.A., Corell, R.W., Holland, G., Hurrell, J.W., MacCracken, M.C., & Trenberth, K. (2010, February 12). Hurricanes and Global Warming—Potential Linkages and Consequences. Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society, 87: 623-628. Accessed April 15, 2010.
  3. Arctic Council. (2004). Arctic Climate Impact Assessment Report. Accessed March 22, 2007.
  4. Balachandran, N., Rind, D., Lonergan, P., & Shindell, D. (1999). Effects of solar cycle variability on the lower stratosphere and the troposphere. Journal of Geophysical Research, 104(D22), 27, 321-327, 339.
  5. Bender, M. A., Knutson, T. R., Tuleya, R. E., Sirutis, J. J., Vecchi, G. A., Garner, S. T., and Held, I. M. (2010). Modeled Impact of Anthropogenic Warming on the Frequency of Intense Atlantic Hurricanes. Science, 327(5964), 454-458.
  6. Bonan, G. B. (2008). Forests and Climate Change: Forcings, Feedbacks, and the Climate Benefits of Forests. Science, 320(5882), 1444-1449.
  7. Cazenave, A. (2006). How fast are the ice sheets melting? Science, 314, 1251-1252.
  8. Clement, A.C., Burgman, R., Norris, J.R. (2009, July 24) Observational and model evidence for positive low-level cloud feedback. Science, 325 (5939), 460-464.
  9. Dessler, A., Zhang, Z., Yang, P. (2008, October 23). Water-vapor climate feedback inferred from climate fluctuations, 2003-2008. Geophysical Research Letters, 35, L20704.
  10. Emanuel, K. (2005). Increasing destructiveness of tropical cyclones over the past 30 years. Nature, 436, 686-688.
  11. Foucal, P., Frölich, C., Spruit, H., and Wigley, T. (2006). Variations in solar luminosity and their effect on the Earth’s climate. Nature, 443, 161-166.
  12. Hansen, J., Sato, M., Ruedy, R., Kharecha, P., Lacis, A., Miller, R., Nazarenko, L., et al. (2007). Climate simulations for 1880–2003 with GISS model E. Climate Dynamics, 29(7), 661-696.
  13. Hansen, J., Nazarenko, L., Ruedy, R., Sato, M., Willis, J., Del Genio, A., Koch, D., Lacis, A., Lo, K., Menon, S., Novakov, T., Perlwitz, J., Russell, G., Schmidt, G.A., and Tausnev, N. (2005, June 3). Earth’s energy imbalance: confirmation and implications. Science, 308, 1431-1435.
  14. Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. (2007). Climate Change 2007: The Physical Science Basis Summary for Policymakers. A Report of Working Group 1 to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change.
  15. Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. (2007). Climate Change 2007: Climate Change Impacts, Adaptation and Vulnerability Summary for Policymakers. A Report of Working Group II to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change.
  16. Joint Science Academies. (2005). Joint Science Academies’ Statement: Global Response to Climate Change. June 2005.
  17. Jouzel, J., Masson-Delmotte, V., Cattani, O., Dreyfus, G., Falourd, S., Hoffmann, G., Minster, B., et al. (2007). Orbital and Millennial Antarctic Climate Variability over the Past 800,000 Years. Science, 317(5839), 793-796.
  18. Labitzke, K., Butchart, N., Knight, J., Takahashi, M., Nakamoto, M., Nagashima, T., Haigh, J., et al. (2002). The global signal of the 11-year solar cycle in the stratosphere: observations and models. Journal of Atmospheric and Solar-Terrestrial Physics, 64(2), 203-210.
  19. Laštovička, J., Akmaev, R. A., Beig, G., Bremer, J., & Emmert, J. T. (2006). ATMOSPHERE: Global Change in the Upper Atmosphere. Science, 314(5803), 1253-1254.
  20. Lau, K. M., and H. T. Wu. (2007). Detecting trends in tropical rainfall characteristics, 1979-2003. International Journal of Climatology, 27.
  21. Lean, J. L., & Rind, D. H. (2009). How will Earth’s surface temperature change in future decades? Geophysical Research Letters, 36, L15708.
  22. Lean, J. L., & Rind, D. H. (2008). How natural and anthropogenic influences alter global and regional surface temperatures: 1889 to 2006. Geophysical Research Letters, 35(18).
  23. Luthcke, S.B., Zwally, H.J., Abdalati, W., Rowlands, D.D., Ray, R.D., Nerem, R.S., Lemoine, F.G., McCarthy, J.J., and Chinn, D.S. (2006). Recent Greenland ice mass loss by drainage system from satellite gravity observations. Science, 314, 1286-1289.
  24. Mann, M. E., Zhang, Z., Hughes, M. K., Bradley, R. S., Miller, S. K., Rutherford, S., & Ni, F. (2008). Proxy-based reconstructions of hemispheric and global surface temperature variations over the past two millennia. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 105(36), 13252-13257.
  25. Manvendra K. Dubey, Petr Chylek, Charlie S. Zender, & Chris K. Folland. (2010, February 12). Global Warming and the Next Ice Age. Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society, 89 (12), 1905-1909.
  26. McGranahan, G., D. Balk and B. Anderson. (2007). The rising tide: assessing the risks of climate change and human settlements in low elevation coastal zones. Environment & Urbanization, 19 (1), 17-37.
  27. Millennium Ecosystem Assessment, 2005. Ecosystems and Human Well-being: Synthesis. Island Press, Washington, DC.
  28. Oren, R., Ellsworth, D. S., Johnsen, K. H., Phillips, N., Ewers, B. E., Maier, C., Schafer, K. V., et al. (2001). Soil fertility limits carbon sequestration by forest ecosystems in a CO2-enriched atmosphere. Nature, 411(6836), 469-472.
  29. Ramanathan, V., & Feng, Y. (2008). On avoiding dangerous anthropogenic interference with the climate system: Formidable challenges ahead. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 105(38), 14245-14250.
  30. Rind, D., Lean, J.L., Lerner, J., Lonergan, P., and Leboissetier, A. (2008). Exploring the stratospheric/tropospheric response to solar forcing. Journal of Geophysical Research, 113, D24103.
  31. Robock, A., Marquardt, A., Kravitz, B., & Stenchikov, G. (2009). Benefits, risks, and costs of stratospheric geoengineering. Geophysical Research Letters, 36, L19703.
  32. Sabine, C. L. (2004). The Oceanic Sink for Anthropogenic CO2. Science, 305(5682), 367-371.
  33. Schimel, D. (2007). Carbon cycle conundrums. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 104(47), 18353-18354.
  34. Seager, R., Ting, M., Held, I., Kushnir, Y., Lu, J., Vecchi, G., Huang, H., et al. (2007). Model Projections of an Imminent Transition to a More Arid Climate in Southwestern North America. Science, 316(5828), 1181-1184.
  35. Shepherd, A., and Wingham, D. (2007). Recent sea-level contributions of the Antarctic and Greenland Ice Sheets. Science, 315, 1529-1532.
  36. Soden, B. J. and Held, I.M. (2006, July). An assessment of climate feedbacks in coupled ocean-atmosphere models. Journal of Climate, 19: 3354-3360.
  37. Stainforth, D. A., Aina, T., Christensen, C., Collins, M., Faull, N., Frame, D. J., Kettleborough, J. A., et al. (2005). Uncertainty in predictions of the climate response to rising levels of greenhouse gases. Nature, 433(7024), 403-406.
  38. U.S. Climate Change Science Program. (April 2006). Temperature Trends in the Lower Atmosphere. Accessed April 13, 2007.
  39. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. (2007). Climate Change. Accessed March 22, 2007.
  40. U.S. Geological Survey. (2009, December 29). Volcanic gases and their effects. Volcano Hazards Program. Accessed March 29, 2010.
  41. Velicogna, I., and Wahr, J., (2006). Measurements of time-variable gravity show mass loss in Antarctica. Science, 311 (5768), 1754-1756.
  42. Weir, J. (2002, April 8). Global Warming. Earth Observatory. Accessed April 13, 2007.