Fahrenheit

Temperature scale designed by the German scientist Gabriel Fahrenheit in 1709, based upon water freezing at 32 degrees Fahrenheit and water boiling at 212 degrees Fahrenheit under standard atmospheric pressure. Compare with centigrade.

false color

A color imaging process which produces an image of a color that does not correspond to the true or natural color of the scene (as seen by our eyes).

far infrared

Electromagnetic radiation, longer than the thermal infrared, with wavelengths between about 25 and 1000 micrometers. See electromagnetic spectrum.

fault line

A fracture in rock along which one side has moved with respect to the other. See Putting Earthquakes in Their Place

feedback mechanisms

Factors which increase or amplify (positive feedback) or decrease (negative feedback) the rate of a process. An example of positive climatic feedback is the ice-albedo feedback.

FEMA

U.S. Federal Emergency Management Agency.

field

The set of influences (electricity, magnetism, gravity) that extend throughout space.

field of view

The range of angles that are scanned or sensed by a system or instrument, measured in degrees of arc.

flood plain

The nearly flat portion of a river (stream) valley adjacent to the river (stream) channel; it is built by sediment deposited during floods and is covered by water during a flood.

fluorocarbons

Carbon-fluorine compounds that often contain other elements such as hydrogen, chlorine, or bromine. Common fluorocarbons include chlorofluorocarbons and related compounds (also know as ozone depleting substances).

flux

the measure of the flow of some quantity per unit area per unit time

fog

A cloud on the ground.

food chain

A sequence of organisms, each of which uses the next lower member of the sequence as a food source.

force

Any external agent that causes a change in the motion of a free body, or that causes stress in a fixed body.

fossil

Hardened remains or traces of plant or animal life from a previous geological period preserved in the Earth's crust.

fossil fuel

Any hydrocarbon deposit that can be burned for heat or power, such as petroleum, coal, and natural gas.

Fraction of Photosynthetically Active Radiation (FPAR)

Radiation between 400 and 700 nm used by the green canopy in the photosynthetic process.

free radicals

Atomic or molecular species with unpaired electrons or an otherwise open shell configuration, usually very reactive. Specific to atmospheric chemistry, free radicals are: short-lived, highly reactive, intermediate species produced by dissociation of the source molecules by solar ultraviolet radiation or by reactions with other stratospheric constituents. Free radicals are the key to intermediate species in many important stratosphericchain reactions in which an ozone molecule is destroyed and the radical is regenerated. See ozone

frequency (F)

Number of cycles and parts of cycles completed per second. F=1/T, where T is the length of one cycle in seconds.

front

A boundary between two different air masses. The difference between two air masses sometimes is unnoticeable. But when the colliding air masses have very different temperatures and amounts of water in them, turbulent weather can erupt.

A cold front occurs when a cold air mass moves into an area occupied by a warmer air mass. Moving at an average speed of about 20 mph, the heavier cold air moves in a wedge shape along the ground. Cold fronts bring lower temperatures and can create narrow bands of violent thunderstorms. In North America, cold fronts form on the eastern edges of high pressure systems.

A warm front occurs when a warm air mass moves into an area occupied by a colder air mass. The warm air is lighter, so it flows up the slope of the cold air below it. Warm fronts usually form on the eastern sides of low pressure systems, create wide areas of clouds and rain, and move at an average speed of 15 mph.

When a cold front follows and then overtakes a warm front (warm fronts move more slowly than cold fronts) lifting the warm air off the ground, an occluded front forms.

frost

Ice crystals formed by deposition of water vapor on a relatively cold surface.

Gaia hypothesis

The hypothesis that the Earth's atmosphere, biosphere, and its living organisms behave as a single system striving to maintain a stability that is conductive to the existence of life.

gamma ray

A high energy photon, especially as emitted by a nucleus in a transition between two energy levels.

General Circulation Model (GCM)

A global, three-dimensional computer model of the climate system which can be used to simulate human-induced climate change. GCMs are highly complex and they represent the effects of such factors as reflective and absorptive properties of atmospheric water vapor, greenhouse gas concentrations, clouds, annual and daily solar heating, ocean temperatures and ice boundaries. The most recent GCMs include global representations of the atmosphere, oceans, and land surface.

geodesy

A branch of applied mathematics concerned with measuring the shape of the Earth and describing variations in the Earth's gravity field.

geodynamics

The study of the Earth's motions, including rotation, tectonics, ocean tides, and structure (i.e., core, mantle). See Putting Earthquakes in Their Place

Geographic Information System (GIS)

A system for archiving, retrieving, and manipulating data that has been stored and indexed according to the geographic coordinates of its elements. The system generally can utilize a variety of data types, such as imagery, maps. table, etc.

geoid

A surface of constant gravitational potential around the Earth--an averaged surface perpendicular to the force of gravity.

geomorphology

The study of present-day landforms, including their classification, description, nature, origin, development, and relationships to underlying structures. Also the history of geologic changes as recorded by these surface features. The term is sometimes restricted to features produced only by erosion and deposition.

geophysical

Relating to the study of the physical characteristics and properties of the solid earth, its air and waters, and its relationship to space phenomena.

geosphere

The physical elements of the Earth's surface crust, and interior.

geostationary

Describes an orbit in which a satellite is always in the same position (appears stationary) with respect to the rotating Earth. The satellite travels around the Earth in the same direction, at an altitude of approximately 35,790 km (22,240 statute miles) because that produces an orbital period equal to the period of rotation of the Earth (actually 23 hours, 56 minutes, 04.09 seconds). A worldwide network of operational geostationary meteorological satellites provides visible and infrared images of Earth's surface and atmosphere. The satellite systems include the U.S. GOES, METEOSAT(launched by the European Space Agency and operated by the European Weather Satellite Organization-EUMETSAT), the Japanese GMS and most commercial, telecommunications satellites.

Geostationary Meteorological Satellite (GMS)

Japan's geostationary weather satellite.

Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES)

NASA-developed, NOAA-operated series of satellites that:

  • provide continuous day and night weather observations;

  • monitor severe weather events such as hurricanes, thunderstorms, and flash floods;

  • relay environmental data from surface collection platforms to a processing center;

  • perform facsimile transmissions of processed weather data to low-cost receiving stations;

  • monitor the Earth's magnetic field, the energetic particle flux in the satellite's vicinity, and x-ray emissions from the sun;

  • detect distress signals from downed aircraft and ships.
GOES observes the U.S. and adjacent ocean areas from vantage points 35,790 (22,240 miles) above the equator at 75 degrees west and 135 degrees west. GOES satellites have an equatorial, Earth-synchronous orbit with a 24-hour period, a visible resolution of 1 km, an IR resolution of 4 km, and a scan rate of 1864 statute miles in about three minutes. See geostationary.

GOES carries the following five major sensor systems:

  1. The imager is a multispectral instrument capable of sweeping simultaneously one visible and four infrared channels in a north-to-south swath across an east-to-west path, providing full disk imagery once every thirty minutes.

  2. The sounder has more spectral bands than the imager for producing high quality atmospheric profiles of temperature and moisture. It is capable of stepping one visible and eighteen infrared channels in a north-to-south swath across an east-to-west path.

  3. The Space Environment Monitor (SEM) measures the condition of the Earth's magnetic field, the solar activity and radiation around the spacecraft, and transmits these data to a central processing facility.

  4. The Data Collection System (DCS) receives transmitted meteorological data from remotely located platforms and relays the data to the end-users.

  5. The Search and Rescue Transponder can relay distress signals at all times, but cannot locate them. While only the polar-orbiting satellite can locate distress signals, the two types of satellites work together to create a comprehensive search and rescue system.

geosynchronous (aka GEO)

Synchronous with respect to the rotation of the Earth. See geostationary.

gigabit

One billion (1,073,741,824) bits.

glacier

A multi-year surplus accumulation of snowfall in excess of snowmelt on land and resulting in a mass of ice at least 0.1 km2 in area that shows some evidence of movement in response to gravity. A glacier may terminate on land or in water. Glacier ice is the largest reservoir of fresh water on Earth, and second only to the oceans as the largest reservoir of total water. Glaciers are found on every continent except Australia.

Glenn Research Center at Lewis Field (GRC)

The John H. Glenn Research Center at Lewis Field (formerly known as the Lewis Research Center), located outside Cleveland, Ohio, conducts a varied program of research in aeronautics and space technology. Aeronautical research includes work on advanced materials and structures for aircraft. Space-related research focuses primarily on power and propulsion. Another significant area of research is in energy and power sources for spacecraft, including the Space Station, for which GRC is developing the largest space power system ever designed. GRC Web Site

global carbon budget

The balance of the exchanges (incomes and losses) of carbon between the carbon reservoirs or between one specific loop (e.g., atmosphere - biosphere) of the carbon cycle. An examination of the carbon budget of a pool or reservoir can provide information about whether the pool or reservoir is functioning as a source or sink for CO2.

Global Change Research Program (GCRP)

The USGCRP is a government-wide program whose goal is 'to establish a scientific basis for national and international policy-making relating to natural and human-induced changes in the global Earth system.' The Earth Science Enterprise is NASA's central contribution to the U.S. Global Change Research Program.

The Global Change Research Program coordinates and guides the efforts of federal agencies. The program examines such questions as, is the Earth experiencing global warming? Is the depletion of the ozone layer expanding? How do we determine and understand the causes of global climate changes? Are they reversible? What are the implications for human needs and activities?

global climate change

The long-term fluctuations in temperature, precipitation, wind, and all other aspects of the Earth's climate. External processes, such as solar-irradiance variations, variations of the Earth's orbital parameters (eccentricity, precession, and inclination), lithosphere motions, and volcanic activity, are factors in climatic variation. Internal variations of the climate system also produce fluctuations of sufficient magnitude and variability to explain observed climate change through the feedback processes interrelating the components of the climate system.

global measurement

All of the activities required to specify a global variable, such as ozone. These activities range from data acquisition to the generation of a data-analysis product, and include estimates of the uncertainties in that product. A global measurement often will consist of a combination of observations from a spacecraft instrument (required for global coverage) and measurements in situ (needed to provide reference points for long-term accuracy).

global positioning system (GPS)

A system consisting of 25 satellites in 6 orbital planes at 20,000 km altitude with 12 hr periods, used to provide highly precise position, velocity and time information to users anywhere on Earth or in its neighborhood at any time.

global variables

Functions of space and time that describe the large scale state and evolution of the Earth system. The Earth system's geosphere, hydrosphere, atmosphere, and biosphere and their components are, or potentially are, global variables.

global warming

An increase in the near surface temperature of the Earth. Global warming has occurred in the distant past as the result of natural influences, but the term is most often used to refer to the warming predicted to occur as a result of increased emissions of greenhouse gases. Scientists generally agree that the Earth's surface has warmed by about 1 degree Fahrenheit in the past 140 years. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) recently concluded that increased concentrations of greenhouse gases are causing an increase in the Earth's surface temperature and that increased concentrations of sulfate aerosols have led to relative cooling in some regions, generally over and downwind of heavily industrialized areas. Also see Climate Change and Enhanced Greenhouse Effect.

Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC)

Goddard was NASA's first major scientific laboratory devoted entirely to the exploration of space. Located in Greenbelt, Maryland, GSFC's responsibilities include design and construction of new scientific and applications satellites, as well as racking and communication with existing satellites in orbit. GSFC is the lead center for the Earth Observing System, a key element of the Earth Sciences Enterprise. GSFC also directs operations at the Wallops Flight Facility on Wallops Island, Virginia, which each year launches some 50 scientific missions to sub-orbital altitudes on small sounding rockets. GSFC Web Site

grassland

Region in which the climate is dry for long periods of the summer, and freezes in the winter. Grasslands are characterized by grasses and other erect herbs, usually without trees or shrubs. Grasslands occur in the dry temperate interiors of continents.

greenhouse effect

The warming of an atmosphere by its absorbing and reemitting infrared radiation while allowing shortwave radiation to pass on through.

Certain gaseous components of the atmosphere, called greenhouse gases, transmit the visible portion of solar radiation but absorb specific spectral bands of thermal radiation emitted by the Earth. The theory is that terrain absorbs radiation, heats up, and emits longer wavelength thermal radiation that is prevented from escaping into space by the blanket of carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. As a result, the climate warms. Because atmospheric and oceanic circulations play a central role in the climate of the Earth, improving our knowledge about their interaction becomes essential.

greenhouse gas

A gaseous component of the atmosphere contributing to the greenhouse effect. Greenhouse gases are transparent to certain wavelengths of the sun's radiant energy, allowing them to penetrate deep into the atmosphere or all the way into the Earth's surface. Greenhouse gases and clouds prevent some of infrared radiation from escaping, trapping the heat near the Earth's surface where it warms the lower atmosphere. Alteration of this natural barrier of atmospheric gases can raise or lower the mean global temperature of the Earth.

Greenhouse gases include carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, chlorofluorocarbons, and water vapor. Carbon dioxide, methane, and nitrous oxide have significant natural and human sources while only industries produce chlorofluorocarbons. Water vapor has the largest greenhouse effect, but its concentration in the troposphere is determined within the climate system. Water vapor will increase in response to global warming, which in turn may further enhance global warming.

Gross National Product

The total value of all goods and services produced by the people of a given country over a year.

ground track

The inclination of a satellite, together with its orbital altitude and the period of its orbit, creates a track defined by an imaginary line connecting the satellite and the Earth's center. The intersection on the line with the Earth's surface is the subsatellite point. As the Earth turns on its axis and the satellite orbits overhead, a line is created by the satellite's apparent path over the ground (the series of subsatellite points connected). A geostationary satellite has an inclination of essentially zero, and, because its orbital period exactly matches the Earth's rotation, its ground track is reduced to an apparent stationary point on the equator.

gulf stream

A warm, swift ocean current that flows along the coast of the Eastern United States and makes Ireland, Great Britain, and the Scandinavian countries warmer than they would be otherwise.