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Sea Surface Temperature Anomaly & Total Rainfall

Global Map Sea Surface Temperature Anomaly Image 1 Global Map Sea Surface Temperature Anomaly Image 2 Global Map Sea Surface Temperature Anomaly Image 3 Global Map Sea Surface Temperature Anomaly Image 4 Global Map Sea Surface Temperature Anomaly Image 5 Global Map Sea Surface Temperature Anomaly Image 6 Global Map Sea Surface Temperature Anomaly Image 7 Global Map Sea Surface Temperature Anomaly Image 8 Global Map Sea Surface Temperature Anomaly Image 9 Global Map Sea Surface Temperature Anomaly Image 10 Global Map Sea Surface Temperature Anomaly Image 11 Global Map Sea Surface Temperature Anomaly Image 12 Global Map Sea Surface Temperature Anomaly Image 13 Global Map Sea Surface Temperature Anomaly Image 14 Global Map Sea Surface Temperature Anomaly Image 15 Global Map Sea Surface Temperature Anomaly Image 16 Global Map Sea Surface Temperature Anomaly Image 17 Global Map Sea Surface Temperature Anomaly Image 18 Global Map Sea Surface Temperature Anomaly Image 19 Global Map Sea Surface Temperature Anomaly Image 20 Global Map Sea Surface Temperature Anomaly Image 21 Global Map Sea Surface Temperature Anomaly Image 22 Global Map Sea Surface Temperature Anomaly Image 23 Global Map Sea Surface Temperature Anomaly Image 24 Global Map Sea Surface Temperature Anomaly Image 25 Global Map Sea Surface Temperature Anomaly Image 26 Global Map Sea Surface Temperature Anomaly Image 27 Global Map Sea Surface Temperature Anomaly Image 28 Global Map Sea Surface Temperature Anomaly Image 29 Global Map Sea Surface Temperature Anomaly Image 30 Global Map Sea Surface Temperature Anomaly Image 31 Global Map Sea Surface Temperature Anomaly Image 32 Global Map Sea Surface Temperature Anomaly Image 33 Global Map Sea Surface Temperature Anomaly Image 34 Global Map Sea Surface Temperature Anomaly Image 35 Global Map Sea Surface Temperature Anomaly Image 36 Global Map Sea Surface Temperature Anomaly Image 37 Global Map Sea Surface Temperature Anomaly Image 38 Global Map Sea Surface Temperature Anomaly Image 39 Global Map Sea Surface Temperature Anomaly Image 40 Global Map Sea Surface Temperature Anomaly Image 41 Global Map Sea Surface Temperature Anomaly Image 42 Global Map Sea Surface Temperature Anomaly Image 43 Global Map Sea Surface Temperature Anomaly Image 44 Global Map Sea Surface Temperature Anomaly Image 45 Global Map Sea Surface Temperature Anomaly Image 46 Global Map Sea Surface Temperature Anomaly Image 47 Global Map Sea Surface Temperature Anomaly Image 48 Global Map Sea Surface Temperature Anomaly Image 49 Global Map Sea Surface Temperature Anomaly Image 50 Global Map Sea Surface Temperature Anomaly Image 51 Global Map Sea Surface Temperature Anomaly Image 52 Global Map Sea Surface Temperature Anomaly Image 53 Global Map Sea Surface Temperature Anomaly Image 54 Global Map Sea Surface Temperature Anomaly Image 55 Global Map Sea Surface Temperature Anomaly Image 56 Global Map Sea Surface Temperature Anomaly Image 57 Global Map Sea Surface Temperature Anomaly Image 58 Global Map Sea Surface Temperature Anomaly Image 59 Global Map Sea Surface Temperature Anomaly Image 60 Global Map Sea Surface Temperature Anomaly Image 61 Global Map Sea Surface Temperature Anomaly Image 62 Global Map Sea Surface Temperature Anomaly Image 63 Global Map Sea Surface Temperature Anomaly Image 64 Global Map Sea Surface Temperature Anomaly Image 65 Global Map Sea Surface Temperature Anomaly Image 66 Global Map Sea Surface Temperature Anomaly Image 67 Global Map Sea Surface Temperature Anomaly Image 68 Global Map Sea Surface Temperature Anomaly Image 69 Global Map Sea Surface Temperature Anomaly Image 70 Global Map Sea Surface Temperature Anomaly Image 71 Global Map Sea Surface Temperature Anomaly Image 72 Global Map Sea Surface Temperature Anomaly Image 73 Global Map Sea Surface Temperature Anomaly Image 74 Global Map Sea Surface Temperature Anomaly Image 75 Global Map Sea Surface Temperature Anomaly Image 76 Global Map Sea Surface Temperature Anomaly Image 77 Global Map Sea Surface Temperature Anomaly Image 78 Global Map Sea Surface Temperature Anomaly Image 79 Global Map Sea Surface Temperature Anomaly Image 80 Global Map Sea Surface Temperature Anomaly Image 81 Global Map Sea Surface Temperature Anomaly Image 82 Global Map Sea Surface Temperature Anomaly Image 83 Global Map Sea Surface Temperature Anomaly Image 84 Global Map Sea Surface Temperature Anomaly Image 85 Global Map Sea Surface Temperature Anomaly Image 86 Global Map Sea Surface Temperature Anomaly Image 87 Global Map Sea Surface Temperature Anomaly Image 88 Global Map Sea Surface Temperature Anomaly Image 89 Global Map Sea Surface Temperature Anomaly Image 90 Global Map Sea Surface Temperature Anomaly Image 91 Global Map Sea Surface Temperature Anomaly Image 92 Global Map Sea Surface Temperature Anomaly Image 93 Global Map Sea Surface Temperature Anomaly Image 94 Global Map Sea Surface Temperature Anomaly Image 95 Global Map Sea Surface Temperature Anomaly Image 96 Global Map Sea Surface Temperature Anomaly Image 97 Global Map Sea Surface Temperature Anomaly Image 98 Global Map Sea Surface Temperature Anomaly Image 99 Global Map Sea Surface Temperature Anomaly Image 100 Global Map Sea Surface Temperature Anomaly Image 101 Global Map Sea Surface Temperature Anomaly Image 102 Global Map Sea Surface Temperature Anomaly Image 103 Global Map Sea Surface Temperature Anomaly Image 104 Global Map Sea Surface Temperature Anomaly Image 105 Global Map Sea Surface Temperature Anomaly Image 106 Global Map Sea Surface Temperature Anomaly Image 107 Global Map Sea Surface Temperature Anomaly Image 108 Global Map Sea Surface Temperature Anomaly Image 109 Global Map Sea Surface Temperature Anomaly Image 110 Global Map Sea Surface Temperature Anomaly Image 111 Global Map Sea Surface Temperature Anomaly Image 112
Sea Surface Temperature Anomaly
Sea Surface Temperature Anomaly Scale
Total Rainfall
Total Rainfall Scale
Global Map Total Rainfall Image 1 Global Map Total Rainfall Image 2 Global Map Total Rainfall Image 3 Global Map Total Rainfall Image 4 Global Map Total Rainfall Image 5 Global Map Total Rainfall Image 6 Global Map Total Rainfall Image 7 Global Map Total Rainfall Image 8 Global Map Total Rainfall Image 9 Global Map Total Rainfall Image 10 Global Map Total Rainfall Image 11 Global Map Total Rainfall Image 12 Global Map Total Rainfall Image 13 Global Map Total Rainfall Image 14 Global Map Total Rainfall Image 15 Global Map Total Rainfall Image 16 Global Map Total Rainfall Image 17 Global Map Total Rainfall Image 18 Global Map Total Rainfall Image 19 Global Map Total Rainfall Image 20 Global Map Total Rainfall Image 21 Global Map Total Rainfall Image 22 Global Map Total Rainfall Image 23 Global Map Total Rainfall Image 24 Global Map Total Rainfall Image 25 Global Map Total Rainfall Image 26 Global Map Total Rainfall Image 27 Global Map Total Rainfall Image 28 Global Map Total Rainfall Image 29 Global Map Total Rainfall Image 30 Global Map Total Rainfall Image 31 Global Map Total Rainfall Image 32 Global Map Total Rainfall Image 33 Global Map Total Rainfall Image 34 Global Map Total Rainfall Image 35 Global Map Total Rainfall Image 36 Global Map Total Rainfall Image 37 Global Map Total Rainfall Image 38 Global Map Total Rainfall Image 39 Global Map Total Rainfall Image 40 Global Map Total Rainfall Image 41 Global Map Total Rainfall Image 42 Global Map Total Rainfall Image 43 Global Map Total Rainfall Image 44 Global Map Total Rainfall Image 45 Global Map Total Rainfall Image 46 Global Map Total Rainfall Image 47 Global Map Total Rainfall Image 48 Global Map Total Rainfall Image 49 Global Map Total Rainfall Image 50 Global Map Total Rainfall Image 51 Global Map Total Rainfall Image 52 Global Map Total Rainfall Image 53 Global Map Total Rainfall Image 54 Global Map Total Rainfall Image 55 Global Map Total Rainfall Image 56 Global Map Total Rainfall Image 57 Global Map Total Rainfall Image 58 Global Map Total Rainfall Image 59 Global Map Total Rainfall Image 60 Global Map Total Rainfall Image 61 Global Map Total Rainfall Image 62 Global Map Total Rainfall Image 63 Global Map Total Rainfall Image 64 Global Map Total Rainfall Image 65 Global Map Total Rainfall Image 66 Global Map Total Rainfall Image 67 Global Map Total Rainfall Image 68 Global Map Total Rainfall Image 69 Global Map Total Rainfall Image 70 Global Map Total Rainfall Image 71 Global Map Total Rainfall Image 72 Global Map Total Rainfall Image 73 Global Map Total Rainfall Image 74 Global Map Total Rainfall Image 75 Global Map Total Rainfall Image 76 Global Map Total Rainfall Image 77 Global Map Total Rainfall Image 78 Global Map Total Rainfall Image 79 Global Map Total Rainfall Image 80 Global Map Total Rainfall Image 81 Global Map Total Rainfall Image 82 Global Map Total Rainfall Image 83 Global Map Total Rainfall Image 84 Global Map Total Rainfall Image 85 Global Map Total Rainfall Image 86 Global Map Total Rainfall Image 87 Global Map Total Rainfall Image 88 Global Map Total Rainfall Image 89 Global Map Total Rainfall Image 90 Global Map Total Rainfall Image 91 Global Map Total Rainfall Image 92 Global Map Total Rainfall Image 93 Global Map Total Rainfall Image 94 Global Map Total Rainfall Image 95 Global Map Total Rainfall Image 96 Global Map Total Rainfall Image 97 Global Map Total Rainfall Image 98 Global Map Total Rainfall Image 99 Global Map Total Rainfall Image 100 Global Map Total Rainfall Image 101 Global Map Total Rainfall Image 102 Global Map Total Rainfall Image 103 Global Map Total Rainfall Image 104 Global Map Total Rainfall Image 105 Global Map Total Rainfall Image 106 Global Map Total Rainfall Image 107 Global Map Total Rainfall Image 108 Global Map Total Rainfall Image 109 Global Map Total Rainfall Image 110 Global Map Total Rainfall Image 111 Global Map Total Rainfall Image 112

The atmosphere and the ocean are intimately connected. Ocean temperatures influence rainfall patterns throughout the world, so when ocean temperatures change, rainfall patterns tend to change as well. Scientists monitor changes in ocean temperatures, looking for warmer or cooler than average waters, to predict floods or droughts. For example, El Niño warms the equatorial Pacific Ocean off South America. The atmosphere becomes warmer and more humid over the eastern Pacific in response. Cascading atmospheric changes can shift the position of the jet stream, which then steers stronger winter storms to the southwestern United States. At the same time, El Niño cools the western Pacific, which usually results in less rain over Australia and Indonesia.

Sea surface temperature refers to the temperature of the top millimeter of the ocean. An anomaly is a departure from average conditions. These maps compare temperatures in a given month to the long-term average temperature of that month from 1985 through 1997. Blue shows temperatures that were cooler than average, white shows near-average temperatures, and red shows where temperatures were warmer than average. Regions for which no data were available are gray. The maps are made from data collected by the Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer-EOS (AMSR-E) compared to historical data collected by a series of National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) satellites.

The rainfall maps show total monthly rainfall in millimeters as recorded by NASA’s Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) satellite. High rain totals are represented in dark blue, while small rainfall totals are shown in white. TRMM measures rainfall in the tropics. High-latitude regions, where TRMM does not record rainfall, are gray.

The relationship between sea surface temperature anomaly and total rainfall is impossible to see in these maps because it is difficult to pick out small changes in total rainfall on a regional scale. A rainfall anomaly image, one that depicts a change in rainfall instead of total rainfall, would best illustrate the relationship. The most obvious pattern in the total rainfall map is seasonal change. A band of heavy rain moves north and south of the Equator seasonally. The Asian monsoon brings rain to China, Southeast Asia, and India between April and September. From October through May, South America goes through a rainy season.

Seasons are more difficult to see in the sea surface temperature anomaly map because it does not depict absolute temperature, but rather how much cooler or warmer the water was compared to normal conditions. The sea surface temperature anomaly map does show the El Niño/La Niña cycle. From July 2006 through January 2007, ocean temperatures off northwest South America were warmer than average while El Niño reigned. Later in the year, from August through December, La Niña took over and the eastern Pacific was cooler than normal.

View, download, or analyze more of these data from NASA Earth Observations (NEO):
Sea Surface Temperature Anomaly
Total Rainfall