infrared radiation (IR)

Infrared is electromagnetic radiation whose wavelength spans the region from about 0.7 to 1000 micrometers (longer than visible radiation, shorter than microwave radiation). Remote sensing instruments work by sensing radiation that is naturally emitted or reflected by the Earth's surface or from the atmosphere, or by sensing signals transmitted from a satellite and reflected back to it. In the visible and near-infrared regions, surface chemical composition, vegetation cover, and biological properties of surface matter can be measured. In the mid-infrared region, geological formations can be detected due to the absorption properties related to the structure of silicates. In the far infrared, emissions from the Earth's atmosphere and surface offer information about atmospheric and surface temperatures and water vapor and other trace constituents in the atmosphere. Since IR data are based on temperatures rather than visible radiation, the data may be obtained day or night.