Coniferous Forest

Coniferous Forest

Temperature

-40°C to 20°C, average summer temperature is 10°C

Precipitation

300 to 900 millimeters of rain per year

Vegetation

Coniferous-evergreen trees (trees that produce cones and needles; some needles remain on the trees all year long)

Location

Canada, Europe, Asia, and the United States

Other

Coniferous forest regions have cold, long, snowy winters, and warm, humid summers; well-defined seasons, at least four to six frost-free months

Example: Beaverlodge, Alberta, Canada

Temperature graph:
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Precipitation graph:
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Location map:
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Description

Between the tundra to the north and the deciduous forest to the south lies the large area of coniferous forest. One type of coniferous forest, the northern boreal forest, is found in 50° to 60°N latitudes. Another type, temperate coniferous forests, grows in lower latitudes of North America, Europe, and Asia, in the high elevations of mountains.

Coniferous forests consist mostly of conifers, trees that grow needles instead of leaves, and cones instead of flowers. Conifers tend to be evergreen, that is, they bear needles all year long. These adaptations help conifers survive in areas that are very cold or dry. Some of the more common conifers are spruces, pines, and firs.

Precipitation in coniferous forests varies from 300 to 900 mm annually, with some temperate coniferous forests receiving up to 2,000 mm. The amount of precipitation depends on the forest location. In the northern boreal forests, the winters are long, cold and dry, while the short summers are moderately warm and moist. In the lower latitudes, precipitation is more evenly distributed throughout the year.

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